Please check the errata for any errors or issues reported since publication. This document is also available in these non-normative formats: XML and Change markings relative to previous edition.
These functions and operators are defined for use in [XML Path Language (XPath) 3.0], [XQuery 3.0: An XML Query Language] and [XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 3.0] and other related XML standards.
The signatures and summaries of functions defined in this document are available at:
This is the third version of the specification of this function library.
The first version was included as an intrinsic part of the [XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0] specification published on 16 November 1999.
This Recommendation of XPath and XQuery Functions and Operators 3.0 represents the second version of a previous W3C Recommendation.
This specification is designed to be referenced normatively from other specifications defining a host language for it; it is not intended to be implemented outside a host language.The implementability of this specification has been tested in the context of its normative inclusion in host languages defined by the XQuery 3.0 and XSLT 3.0 (expected in 2014) specifications; see the XQuery 3.0 implementation report (and, in the future, the WGs expect that there will also be a — possibly member-only — XSLT 3.0 implementation report) for details.The second version was published under the title on 23 January 2007, subsequently revised in a second edition published on 14 December 2010.This third version is the first to carry its own version number, which has been set at 3.0 to align with the version numbering for XPath, XQuery, and XSLT.This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at This is one document in a set of six documents that have been progressed to Recommendation together (XQuery 3.0, XQuery X 3.0, XPath 3.0, Data Model 3.0, Functions and Operators 3.0, and Serialization 3.0). It was jointly developed by the W3C XML Query Working Group and the W3C XSLT Working Group, each of which is part of the XML Activity.